Posts Tagged ‘HTTP’

How to setup Apache HTTP and HTTPS virtual hosts

Virtual hosting is a way of hosting several servers on a single machine. This technique is widely used in shared web hosting, because it greatly reduces hosting costs, since multiple customers use one server.

There are three types of virtual hosting:

  • Name-based – when the virtual hosts is determined by its domain. A problem with this approach is that it is completely dependent on the DNS.
  • IP-based – when each site is differentiated via his IP. A natural complication is that this requires a different IP for each site.
  • Port-based – when each site is described with the same domain, but different port. Naturally, the problem that users don’t generally use ports arises. Additionally, some firewalls block uncommon ports.

Using Apache, we will setup two name-based virtual hosts – an HTTP one and an HTTPS one. Both will work on the standard ports 80 for HTTP and 443 for HTTPS. Naturally we will see how to set port-based hosts.

Note: This tutorial assumes standard file places and settings for Apache on CentOS.

Note: The goal of this tutorial is not to provide extensive knowledge on configuring virtual hosts, but to provide a general-purpose working configuration. For more find-tuned configurations refer to the Apache documentation on virtual hosts.

We assume that <domain> is the domain for our virtual host. In the httpd/conf.d directory (usually /etc/httpd/conf.d) create a file called <domain>.conf

Note: It is not necessary to call your file <domain>.conf, but it’s a sort of a convention and makes editing hosts easier. The file for the HTTP virtual host should contain:

# <domain> HTTP Virtual Host
<VirtualHost *:80>
    # General
    ServerAdmin <administrator_e_mail>
    DocumentRoot /var/www/html/<domain>
    ServerName www.<domain>
    ServerAlias <domain>
    # Logging
    ErrorLog logs/<domain>-error_log
    CustomLog logs/<domain>-access_log common

<administrator_e_mail> is the e-mail of the site administrator. After you set this file restart the HTTP Server daemon:

service httpd restart

To setup an HTTPS virtual host, again create the <domain>.conf file in the /httpd/conf.d. Again we assume <domain> is the domain-name:

# <domain> HTTPS Virtual Host
<VirtualHost *:443>
    # General
    ServerAdmin <administrator_e_mail>
    DocumentRoot /var/www/html/<domain>
    ServerName www.<domain>
    ServerAlias <domain>
    # Logging
    ErrorLog logs/<domain>-ssl_error_log
    TransferLog logs/<domain>-ssl_access_log
    CustomLog logs/<domain>-ssl_request_log "%t %h %{SSL_PROTOCOL}x %{SSL_CIPHER}x \"%r\" %b"
    LogLevel warn
    # SSL Engine
    SSLEngine on
    # SSL Protocol
    SSLProtocol all –SSLv2
    # SSL Cipher Suite
    # Server Certificate
    SSLCertificateFile <path_to_certificate>
    # Server Private Key
    SSLCertificateKeyFile <path_to_private_key>
    # SSL Engine Options
    <Files ~ "\.(cgi|shtml|phtml|php3?)$">
        SSLOptions +StdEnvVars
    <Directory "/var/www/cgi-bin">
        SSLOptions +StdEnvVars
    # SSL Protocol Adjusments
    SetEnvIf User-Agent ".*MSIE.*" nokeepalive ssl-unclean-shutdown owngrade-1.0 force-response-1.0

Of course, after setting this, restart the HTTP daemon:

service httpd restart

It is easily noticeable, that you can setup port-based virtual hosts quite easy, by using the same domain, but different ports in the .conf file.

Naturally this tutorial is not exhaustive, as such tutorial will be pretty much equal to documentation (which you can find here).

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Configure Pidgin to use proxy server per account

In this tutorial I will show you how to configure Pidgin to use a proxy server for just one account. The tutorial is very basic and will guide you in four simple steps how to accomplish our goal. The operating system used is ArchLinux and we have installed Pidgin 2.6.5 (libpurple 2.6.5)

The prerequisites for this tutorial are:

1. Linux distribution with Gnome 2.x
2. Pidgin installed and functional with at least one account set.(if you do not have any account set check out the tutorial for how to Setup your ICQ in Pidgin)
3. A proxy server

Step 1:
Start Pidgin on your computer. From the main Pidgin window go to Accounts -> Manage Accounts as shown on the picture below. Read the rest of this entry »

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Strip SSL with Apache mod_proxy part two

Greetings, reader.

This tutorial is the second part of the setup instructions how to Strip SSL part of a request with Apache mod_proxy. Lets remind you what the situation was. We have server A which has SSL support and can handle the initial request. Then we have server B which is supposed actually to handle the request but doesn”t support SSL. The goal is to relay the request which landed on Server A and to pass it to Server B

You can read the first part of the tutorial here Strip SSL with Apache mod_proxy part one

So the first part ended up with configuring a virtual host to handle HTTP request on Server A.

Now we need to configure a virtual host to handle HTTPS requests. Open /usr/local/apache2/conf/extra/httpd-ssl.conf with your favorite editor.

Read the rest of this entry »

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Strip SSL with Apache mod_proxy part one

Today I have faced a challenging situation. I needed to strip SSL from HTTP request to on of our servers platform and send it to another server without SSL. We use little tip as using Apache mod_proxy to implement this functionality.


We need to have apache with:

1. DSO support compiled (with mod_proxy support)
2. SSL certificate
3. configuration for Virtual Hosting
4. configuration for mod_proxy

By default our apache installations are with version 2.2.3 and we have support for DSO, this means if we have mod_proxy compiled for Apache 2.2.3 we can use without recompiling Apache from source and just put it in /usr/local/apache2/modules . If you need to compile new Apache instance we need to use configure options as follow: Read the rest of this entry »

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What is AJAX

This AJAX tutorial will teach you what is AJAX and how to use AJAX programming tools.

AJAX is coming from Asynchronous JavaScript And XML.

AJAX is programming technique combining client JavaScript code and Server-Side HTTP Requests. AJAX stands more popular in 2005 with Google Suggest. Read the rest of this entry »

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